Is There Still a Penalty for Having Children?

Press/Media: Research


Article 'Is There Still a Penalty for Having Children?' published online via PopDigest, author Emily Lines, about research published in 'Demography':

Muller, J. S., Hiekel, N., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2020). The Long-Term Costs of Family Trajectories: Women’s Later-Life Employment and Earnings Across Europe. Demography. Available online:

Period01 May 2020

Media coverage


Media coverage


  • Children
  • motherhood
  • penalty