Different biologic processes are responsible for the nitrous oxide (N2O) production from soils. So, decipher the main players is of paramount importance due to global warming, since N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Its well know that combined application of organic residues with inorganic nitrogen (N) usually increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and change the structure of soil microbiome. The use of organic vinasse, a by-product of ethanol production, applied in the sugarcane fields is no different. The present study investigated the role of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and fungal denitrifier communities on the N2O production in soils amended with vinasse (CV: concentrated and V: non-concentrated) plus N fertilizer in two different seasons, rainy (RS) and dry (DS) season. We employed a deep amoA, nirK, 16s rDNA and ITS rDNA amplicon sequencing approach to evaluate the effect of treatments on the community structure and diversity of the soil AOB and fungal denitrifier communities and also the impact of such residues in the soil microbiome.