A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi

David S Hibbett, Manfred Binder, Joseph F Bischoff, Meredith Blackwell, Paul F Cannon, Ove E Eriksson, Sabine Huhndorf, Timothy James, Paul M Kirk, Robert Lücking, H Thorsten Lumbsch, François Lutzoni, P Brandon Matheny, David J McLaughlin, Martha J Powell, Scott Redhead, Conrad L Schoch, Joseph W Spatafora, Joost A Stalpers, Rytas VilgalysM Catherine Aime, André Aptroot, Robert Bauer, Dominik Begerow, Gerald L Benny, Lisa A Castlebury, Pedro W Crous, Yu-Cheng Dai, Walter Gams, David M Geiser, Gareth W Griffith, Cécile Gueidan, David L Hawksworth, Geir Hestmark, Kentaro Hosaka, Richard A Humber, Kevin D Hyde, Joseph E Ironside, Urmas Kõljalg, Cletus P Kurtzman, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Robert Lichtwardt, Joyce Longcore, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Andrew Miller, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Sharon Mozley-Standridge, Franz Oberwinkler, Erast Parmasto, Valérie Reeb, Jack D Rogers, Claude Roux, Leif Ryvarden, José Paulo Sampaio, Arthur Schüssler, Junta Sugiyama, R Greg Thorn, Leif Tibell, Wendy A Untereiner, Christopher Walker, Zheng Wang, Alex Weir, Michael Weiss, Merlin M White, Katarina Winka, Yi-Jian Yao, Ning Zhang

    Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

    1812 Citations (Scopus)


    A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described or validated here: Dikarya subkingdom nov.; Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota phyla nov.; Monoblepharidomycetes, Neocallimastigomycetes class. nov.; Eurotiomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Mycocaliciomycetidae subclass. nov.; Acarosporales, Corticiales, Baeomycetales, Candelariales, Gloeophyllales, Melanosporales, Trechisporales, Umbilicariales ords. nov. The clade containing Ascomycota and Basidiomycota is classified as subkingdom Dikarya, reflecting the putative synapomorphy of dikaryotic hyphae. The most dramatic shifts in the classification relative to previous works concern the groups that have traditionally been included in the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota. The Chytridiomycota is retained in a restricted sense, with Blastocladiomycota and Neocallimastigomycota representing segregate phyla of flagellated Fungi. Taxa traditionally placed in Zygomycota are distributed among Glomeromycota and several subphyla incertae sedis, including Mucoromycotina, Entomophthoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina, and Zoopagomycotina. Microsporidia are included in the Fungi, but no further subdivision of the group is proposed. Several genera of 'basal' Fungi of uncertain position are not placed in any higher taxa, including Basidiobolus, Caulochytrium, Olpidium, and Rozella.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)509-547
    Number of pages39
    JournalMycological Research
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2007


    • Evolution, Molecular
    • Fungi
    • Phylogeny
    • Terminology as Topic


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