In meromictic lakes such as Lake Shira, horizontal inhomogeneity is small in comparison with vertical gradients. To determine the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density of water in a deep zone of a Lake Shira, or other saline lakes, a one-dimensional (in vertical direction) mathematical model is presented. A special feature of this model is that it takes into account the process of ice formation. The model of ice formation is based on the one-phase Stefan problem with the linear temperature distribution in the solid phase. A convective mixed layer is formed under an ice cover due to salt extraction in the ice formation process. To obtain analytical solutions for the vertical distribution of temperature, salinity, and density of water, we use a scheme of vertical structure in the form of several layers. In spring, the ice melts as top and bottom. These processes are taken into account in the model. The calculated profiles of salinity and temperature of Shira Lake are in good agreement with field measurement data for each season. Additionally, we focussed on the redox zone, which is the zone in which the aerobic layers of a water column meet the anaerobic ones. Hyperactivity of plankton communities is observed in this zone in lakes with hydrogen sulphide monimolimnion, and Lake Shira is among them. The location of the redox zone in the lake, which is estimated from field measurements, coincides with a sharp increase in density (the pycnocline) during autumn and winter. During spring and summer, the redox zone is deeper than the pycnocline. The location of pycnocline calculated with the hydro physical model is in good agreement with field measurement data.
Genova, S. N., Belolipetsky, V. M., Rogozin, D. Y., Degermendzhy, A. G., & Mooij, W. M. (2010). A one-dimensional model of vertical stratification of Lake Shira focussed on winter conditions and ice cover. Aquatic Ecology, 44(3), 571-584. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10452-010-9327-7