A promoter polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene is associated with the pineal MAOA activity in Alzheimer's disease patients

Ying-Hui Wu, David F Fischer, Dick F Swaab

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and Alzheimer's disease (AD). MAOA activity and gene expression have been found to be up-regulated in different brain areas of AD patients, including the pineal gland. Increased pineal MAOA activity might contribute to the reduced pineal melatonin production in AD. A promoter polymorphism of a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) in the MAOA gene shows to affect MAOA transcriptional activity in vitro.

METHODS: Here we examined in 63 aged controls and 44 AD patients the effects of the MAOA-VNTR on MAOA gene expression and activity in the pineal gland as endophenotypes, and on melatonin production.

RESULTS: AD patients carrying long MAOA-VNTR genotype (consisting of 3.5- or 4-repeat alleles) showed higher MAOA gene expression and activity than the short-genotyped (i.e., 3-repeat allele) AD patients. Moreover, the AD-related up-regulation of MAOA showed up only among long-genotype bearing subjects. There was no significant effect of the MAOA-VNTR on MAOA activity or gene expression in controls, or on melatonin production in both controls and AD patients.

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the MAOA-VNTR affects the activity and gene expression of MAOA in the brain of AD patients, and is involved in the changes of monoamine metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-19
Number of pages7
JournalBrain Research
Volume1167
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 05 Sep 2007

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Alzheimer Disease/enzymology
  • Biogenic Monoamines/metabolism
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/genetics
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics
  • Genetic Testing
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Melatonin/biosynthesis
  • Monoamine Oxidase/genetics
  • Pineal Gland/enzymology
  • Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
  • Up-Regulation/genetics

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