The specific molecular determinants that govern progenitor expansion and final compartment size in the myogenic lineage, either during gestation or during regenerative myogenesis, remain largely obscure. Recently, we retrieved d-asb11 from a zebrafish screen designed to identify gene products that are downregulated during embryogenesis upon terminal differentiation and identified it as a potential regulator of compartment size in the ectodermal lineage. A role in mesodermal derivatives remained, however, unexplored. Here we report pan-vertebrate expression of Asb11 in muscle compartments, where it highly specifically localizes to the Pax7(+) muscle satellite cell compartment. Forced expression of d-asb11 impaired terminal differentiation and caused enhanced proliferation in the myogenic progenitor compartment both in in vivo and in vitro model systems. Conversely, introduction of a germline hypomorphic mutation in the zebrafish d-asb11 gene produced premature differentiation of the muscle progenitors and delayed regenerative responses in adult injured muscle. Thus, the expression of d-asb11 is necessary for muscle progenitor expansion, whereas its downregulation marks the onset of terminal differentiation. Hence, we provide evidence that d-asb11 is a principal regulator of embryonic as well as adult regenerative myogenesis.