Vinueza Veloz, Andrés Fernando, Aymaru Kailli Yaulema Riss, Chris I. De Zeeuw, Tannia Valeria Carpio Arias, and María Fernanda Vinueza Veloz. Blood pressure in Andean adults living permanently at different altitudes. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2020. Aims: To estimate the association between blood pressure (BP) and chronic exposure to altitude in nonhypertensive Andean adults, while taking ethnicity into consideration. Materials and Methods: Sample included 10,041 nonhypertensive adults with indigenous or mixed ethnic background (the latter also referred to as mestizos), who permanently lived at different altitudes. BP was measured following international recommendations. Altitude was measured in meters above the sea level (masl) using a global positioning system. Data were analyzed through linear regression models with restricted cubic splines. Results: A significant nonlinear relation between altitude and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was found (both p < 0.001). BP described a j-shaped curve, where the minimum was observed between 750 and 1250 masl, from where both SBP and DBP rose as altitude increased. These associations were independent from sex, age, index of economic wellbeing, body mass index, and years of education. Interestingly, at all altitudes indigenous people had lower SBP and DBP in comparison to mestizos (both p < 0.001). Conclusions: Living permanently at altitudes ≥750 masl is associated with higher SBP and DBP in Andean dwellers and this association is modulated by their ethnic background.