Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

Yi XU, Zhihong Shi, Bas van Leeuwen, Yuping Ni, Zipeng Zhang, Ye Ma

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

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In recent decades, national income has become increasingly important as a measure of a nation’s economic health. In this study, we used a wide array of primary and secondary sources to arrive at values of the Chinese per capita gross domestic product (GDP) during the period of 1661–1933. We found a persistent decline in the per capita GDP between the 17th and 19th centuries, followed by a period of stagnation. This pattern, which shows up in many Asian countries, with the exception of Japan, provides a basis for improving our understanding of the patterns of global economic convergence and divergence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)368
Number of pages393
JournalAustralian Economic History Review
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • GDP
  • China
  • Growth
  • industry
  • services
  • agriculture
  • Qing dynasty


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  • Chinese National Income, ca. 1661–1933

    van Leeuwen, B., 2015, (MPRA Working Paper; no. 70873).

    Research output: Working paper/discussion paperWorking paper/Discussion paperScientific

    Open Access

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