Chloride Homeostasis in Neurons With Special Emphasis on the Olivocerebellar System: Differential Roles for Transporters and Channels

Negah Rahmati, Freek E Hoebeek, Sasa Peter, Chris I. De Zeeuw

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Abstract

The intraneuronal ionic composition is an important determinant of brain functioning. There is growing evidence that aberrant homeostasis of the intracellular concentration of Cl− ([Cl−]i) evokes, in addition to that of Na+ and Ca2+, robust impairments of neuronal excitability and neurotransmission and thereby neurological conditions. More specifically, understanding the mechanisms underlying regulation of [Cl−]i is crucial for deciphering the variability in GABAergic and glycinergic signaling of neurons, in both health and
disease. The homeostatic level of [Cl−]i is determined by various regulatory mechanisms, including those mediated by plasma membrane Cl− channels and transporters. This review focuses on the latest advances in identification, regulation and characterization of Cl− channels and transporters that modulate neuronal excitability and cell volume. By putting special emphasis on neurons of the olivocerebellar system, we establish that Cl− channels and transporters play an indispensable role in determining their [Cl−]i and thereby their function in sensorimotor coordination.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101
JournalFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

Keywords

  • chloride homeostasis
  • chloride transporters and channels
  • GABAergic inhibition
  • olivocerebellar system
  • cerebellar motor learning

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