Chromoblastomycosis and leprosy are chronic diseases with high prevalence in tropical and subtropical regions. Brazil is one of the countries with the highest incidence and prevalence for both diseases, however, reports of co-infections are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe three cases of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection in patients from Mato Grosso state, Brazil. A review of chromoblastomycosis-leprosy co-infection was performed of English, Portuguese and Spanish publications in LILACS, SciELO, PubMed and Web of Science databases using the descriptors (chromoblastomycosis OR cromoblastomicose OR cromoblastomicosis) AND (leprosy OR hanseníase OR lepra), without time period delimitation. Nineteen cases were included, 16 cases were published in 11 articles, plus the three cases reported in the current study. Most reported coninfection cases came from Brazil. Majority of the patients were male with a mean age of 52.2 years. Farmer was the main occupational activity reported. In 12 patients, the clinical signs and symptoms of leprosy started first. No contacts with patients affected by leprosy, armadillos or history of injuries at the anatomical site of chromoblastomycosis lesions were reported. Five leprosy patients who received steroid treatment for leprosy reactions or neuropathies, were diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis during immunosuppressive therapy. Four cases (21.1%) were reported among the elderly patients. Co-infections in patients with chromoblastomycosis or leprosy are uncommon, but the possibility should always be considered, especially if the patient is undergoing immunosuppressive treatment or is elder.
- Middle Aged