Climate change can affect populations and species in various ways. Rising temperatures can shift geographical distributions and lead to (phenotypic or genetic) changes in traits, mostly phenology, which may affect demography. Most of these effects are well documented in birds. For example, the distribution of species has shifted polewards, and birds are nowadays breeding or migrating earlier. An important aspect of the observed phenological changes is whether species are thereby able to maintain synchrony with phenological changes in their environment, for example the phenology of their prey species. Disrupted synchrony, for example between predator and prey, can lead to reduced reproductive success or survival, which can negatively affect demography. Evidence for this happening in birds is – so far – limited but theoretical models predict that extinction risks could arise through insufficient adaptation to such phenological mismatches.
|Title of host publication||eLS|
|Publisher||John Wiley and Sons Ltd|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Nov 2016|