Candiduria is common among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs); however, clinical and microbiological data are limited, which accounts for non-compliance with international guidelines, including over treatment of asymptomatic candiduria that promotes antifungal resistance. This prospective study included adult patients admitted to ICUs of five referral hospitals in Shiraz, Iran, during 2016-2018. Species were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and antifungal susceptibility was assessed according to CLSI M27-A3/S4. Among 2086 patients, 162 and 293 developed candiduria and bacteriuria, respectively. In total, 174 yeast isolates were collected; 88.5% were Candida albicans (91/174; 52.2%), C. glabrata (38/174; 21.8%), and C. tropicalis (25/174; 14.3%). Antifungal resistance was rare; only two isolates (one C. tropicalis and one C. krusei) were fluconazole resistant. Symptomatic candiduria was noted in 31.4% of patients (51/162); only 37% (19/51) of them were treated and 36.82% (7/19) showed fluconazole therapeutic failure. Two symptomatic patients developed candidemia shortly after candiduria. Among asymptomatic patients, 31.5% (35/111) were overtreated with fluconazole. The mortality rate was 25.3% (41/162); it did not differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Our results indicate that deviation from standard-of-care treatment for candiduria is a matter of concern given the high rate of fluconazole therapeutic failure among patients with symptomatic candiduria.
LAY SUMMARY: Candiduria is an underestimated clinical presentation among critically ill patients and detailed data are scarce in this regard. Given the high rate of fluconazole therapeutic failure and development of candidemia in some cases, the mistreatment of candiduria should not be overlooked by clinicians.