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Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections. / Cheng, K. (Corresponding author); Van de Waal, D.B.; Niu, X.Y.; Zhao, Y.J. (Corresponding author).

In: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 8, fmicb.2017.01096, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

Harvard

Cheng, K, Van de Waal, DB, Niu, XY & Zhao, YJ 2017, 'Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections' Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 8, fmicb.2017.01096. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01096

APA

Vancouver

Cheng K, Van de Waal DB, Niu XY, Zhao YJ. Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017;8. fmicb.2017.01096. Available from, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01096

Author

Cheng, K. ; Van de Waal, D.B. ; Niu, X.Y. ; Zhao, Y.J./ Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections. In: Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017 ; Vol. 8.

BibTeX

@article{469586539c56416dbda6a3d352789ebe,
title = "Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections",
abstract = "Elevated pCO2 and warming are generally expected to influence cyanobacterial growth, and may promote the formation of blooms. Yet, both climate change factors may also influence cyanobacterial mortality by favoring pathogens, such as viruses, which will depend on the ability of the host to adapt. To test this hypothesis, we grew Plectonema boryanum IU597 under two temperature (25 and 29°C) and two pCO2 (400 and 800 μatm) conditions for 1 year, after which all treatments were re-exposed to control conditions for a period of 3 weeks. At several time points during the 1 year period, and upon re-exposure, we measured various infection characteristics of it associated cyanophage PP, including the burst size, latent period, lytic cycle and the efficiency of plaquing (EOP). As expected, elevated pCO2 promoted growth of P. boryanum equally over the 1 year period, but warming did not. Burst size increased in the warm treatment, but decreased in both the elevated pCO2 and combined treatment. The latent period and lytic cycle both became shorter in the elevated pCO2 and higher temperature treatment, and were further reduced by the combined effect of both factors. Efficiency of plaquing (EOP) decreased in the elevated pCO2 treatment, increased in the warm treatment, and increased even stronger in the combined treatment. These findings indicate that elevated pCO2 enhanced the effect of warming, thereby further promoting the virus infection rate. The re-exposure experiments demonstrate adaptation of the host leading to higher biomass build-up with elevated pCO2 over the experimental period, and lower performance upon re-exposure to control conditions. Similarly, virus burst size and EOP increased when given warm adapted host, but were lower as compared to the control when the host was re-exposed to control conditions. Our results demonstrate that adaptation but particularly physiological acclimation to climate change conditions favored viral infections, while limited host plasticity and slow adaptation after re-exposure to control conditions impeded host biomass build-up and viral infections.",
keywords = "international",
author = "K. Cheng and {Van de Waal}, D.B. and X.Y. Niu and Y.J. Zhao",
note = "6316, AqE; Data archiving: no data (review)",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.3389/fmicb.2017.01096",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Frontiers in Microbiology",
issn = "1664-302X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S.A.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combined Effects of Elevated pCO2 and Warming Facilitate Cyanophage Infections

AU - Cheng,K.

AU - Van de Waal,D.B.

AU - Niu,X.Y.

AU - Zhao,Y.J.

N1 - 6316, AqE; Data archiving: no data (review)

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Elevated pCO2 and warming are generally expected to influence cyanobacterial growth, and may promote the formation of blooms. Yet, both climate change factors may also influence cyanobacterial mortality by favoring pathogens, such as viruses, which will depend on the ability of the host to adapt. To test this hypothesis, we grew Plectonema boryanum IU597 under two temperature (25 and 29°C) and two pCO2 (400 and 800 μatm) conditions for 1 year, after which all treatments were re-exposed to control conditions for a period of 3 weeks. At several time points during the 1 year period, and upon re-exposure, we measured various infection characteristics of it associated cyanophage PP, including the burst size, latent period, lytic cycle and the efficiency of plaquing (EOP). As expected, elevated pCO2 promoted growth of P. boryanum equally over the 1 year period, but warming did not. Burst size increased in the warm treatment, but decreased in both the elevated pCO2 and combined treatment. The latent period and lytic cycle both became shorter in the elevated pCO2 and higher temperature treatment, and were further reduced by the combined effect of both factors. Efficiency of plaquing (EOP) decreased in the elevated pCO2 treatment, increased in the warm treatment, and increased even stronger in the combined treatment. These findings indicate that elevated pCO2 enhanced the effect of warming, thereby further promoting the virus infection rate. The re-exposure experiments demonstrate adaptation of the host leading to higher biomass build-up with elevated pCO2 over the experimental period, and lower performance upon re-exposure to control conditions. Similarly, virus burst size and EOP increased when given warm adapted host, but were lower as compared to the control when the host was re-exposed to control conditions. Our results demonstrate that adaptation but particularly physiological acclimation to climate change conditions favored viral infections, while limited host plasticity and slow adaptation after re-exposure to control conditions impeded host biomass build-up and viral infections.

AB - Elevated pCO2 and warming are generally expected to influence cyanobacterial growth, and may promote the formation of blooms. Yet, both climate change factors may also influence cyanobacterial mortality by favoring pathogens, such as viruses, which will depend on the ability of the host to adapt. To test this hypothesis, we grew Plectonema boryanum IU597 under two temperature (25 and 29°C) and two pCO2 (400 and 800 μatm) conditions for 1 year, after which all treatments were re-exposed to control conditions for a period of 3 weeks. At several time points during the 1 year period, and upon re-exposure, we measured various infection characteristics of it associated cyanophage PP, including the burst size, latent period, lytic cycle and the efficiency of plaquing (EOP). As expected, elevated pCO2 promoted growth of P. boryanum equally over the 1 year period, but warming did not. Burst size increased in the warm treatment, but decreased in both the elevated pCO2 and combined treatment. The latent period and lytic cycle both became shorter in the elevated pCO2 and higher temperature treatment, and were further reduced by the combined effect of both factors. Efficiency of plaquing (EOP) decreased in the elevated pCO2 treatment, increased in the warm treatment, and increased even stronger in the combined treatment. These findings indicate that elevated pCO2 enhanced the effect of warming, thereby further promoting the virus infection rate. The re-exposure experiments demonstrate adaptation of the host leading to higher biomass build-up with elevated pCO2 over the experimental period, and lower performance upon re-exposure to control conditions. Similarly, virus burst size and EOP increased when given warm adapted host, but were lower as compared to the control when the host was re-exposed to control conditions. Our results demonstrate that adaptation but particularly physiological acclimation to climate change conditions favored viral infections, while limited host plasticity and slow adaptation after re-exposure to control conditions impeded host biomass build-up and viral infections.

KW - international

U2 - 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01096

DO - 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01096

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Frontiers in Microbiology

T2 - Frontiers in Microbiology

JF - Frontiers in Microbiology

SN - 1664-302X

M1 - fmicb.2017.01096

ER -

ID: 4292329