Consensus molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer are recapitulated in in vitro and in vivo models

Janneke F Linnekamp, Sander R van Hooff, Pramudita R Prasetyanti, Raju Kandimalla, Joyce Y Buikhuisen, Evelyn Fessler, Prashanthi Ramesh, Kelly A S T Lee, Grehor G W Bochove, Johan H de Jong, Kate Cameron, Ronald van Leersum, Hans M Rodermond, Marek Franitza, Peter Nürnberg, Laura R Mangiapane, Xin Wang, Hans Clevers, Louis Vermeulen, Giorgio StassiJan Paul Medema

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

125 Citations (Scopus)


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease both from a molecular and clinical perspective. Several distinct molecular entities, such as microsatellite instability (MSI), have been defined that make up biologically distinct subgroups with their own clinical course. Recent data indicated that CRC can be best segregated into four groups called consensus molecular subtypes (CMS1-4), each of which has a unique biology and gene expression pattern. In order to develop improved, subtype-specific therapies and to gain insight into the molecular wiring and origin of these subtypes, reliable models are needed. This study was designed to determine the heterogeneity and identify the presence of CMSs in a large panel of CRC cell lines, primary cultures and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). We provide a repository encompassing this heterogeneity and moreover describe that a large part of the models can be robustly assigned to one of the four CMSs, independent of the stromal contribution. We subsequently validate our CMS stratification by functional analysis which for instance shows mesenchymal enrichment in CMS4 and metabolic dysregulation in CMS3. Finally, we observe a clear difference in sensitivity to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, specifically between CMS2 and CMS4. This relates to the in vivo efficacy of chemotherapy, which delays outgrowth of CMS2, but not CMS4 xenografts. Combined our data indicate that molecular subtypes are faithfully modelled in CRC cell cultures and PDXs, representing tumour cell intrinsic and stable features. This repository provides researchers with a platform to study CRC using the existing heterogeneity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-633
Number of pages18
JournalCell Death and Differentiation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018


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