Conservation of birds in fragmented landscapes requires protected areas

Robert Timmers* (Corresponding author), Marijke van Kuijk, Pita A. Verweij, Jaboury Ghazoul, Yann Hautier, William F. Laurance, Stefan L. Arriaga-Weiss, Robert A. Askins, Corrado Battisti, Åke Berg, Gretchen C. Daily, Cristián F. Estades, Beatrice Frank, Reiko Kurosawa, Rosamund A. Pojar, John C.Z. Woinarski, Merel B. Soons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


For successful conservation of biodiversity, it is vital to know whether protected areas in increasingly fragmented landscapes effectively safeguard species. However, how large habitat fragments must be, and what level of protection is required to sustain species, remains poorly known. We compiled a global dataset on almost 2000 bird species in 741 forest fragments varying in size and protection status, and show that protection is associated with higher bird occurrence, especially for threatened species. Protection becomes increasingly effective with increasing size of forest fragments. For forest fragments >50 ha our results show that strict protection (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] categories I–IV) is strongly associated with higher bird occurrence, whereas fragments had to be at least 175 ha for moderate protection (IUCN categories V and VI) to have a positive effect. This meta-analysis quantifies the importance of fragment size, protection status, and their interaction for the conservation of bird species communities, and stresses that protection should not be limited to large pristine areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)361-369
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Ecology and the Environment
Issue number6
Early online date2022
Publication statusPublished - 2022


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