Core-clock genes Period 1 and 2 regulate visual cascade and cell cycle components during mouse eye development

Udita Bagchi, Shumet Gegnaw, Nemanja Milićević, Cristina Sandu, Jacoline B Ten Brink, Aldo Jongejan, David Hicks, Perry D Moerland, Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl, Arthur A Bergen

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


The retinas from Period 1 (Per1) and Period 2 (Per2) double-mutant mice (Per1- /-Per2Brdm1) display abnormal blue-cone distribution associated with a reduction in cone opsin mRNA and protein levels, up to 1 year of age. To reveal the molecular mechanisms by which Per1 and Per2 control retina development, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression differences between wild-type (WT) and Per1- /-Per2Brdm1 mice across ocular developmental stages (E15, E18 and P3). All clock genes displayed changes in transcript levels along with normal eye development. RNA-Seq data show major gene expression changes between WT and mutant eyes, with the number of differentially expressed genes (DEG) increasing with developmental age. Functional annotation of the genes showed that the most significant changes in expression levels in mutant mice involve molecular pathways relating to circadian rhythm signaling at E15 and E18. At P3, the visual cascade and the cell cycle were respectively higher and lower expressed compared to WT eyes. Overall, our study provides new insights into signaling pathways -phototransduction and cell cycle- controlled by the circadian clock in the eye during development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194623
JournalBiochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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