Fusarium culmorum is one of the most important fungal plant pathogens that causes diseases on a wide diversity of cereal and non-cereal crops. We report herein for the first time the genome sequence of F. culmorum strain PV and its associated secondary metabolome that plays a role in the interaction with other microorganisms and contributes to its pathogenicity on plants. The genome revealed the presence of two terpene synthases, trichodiene and longiborneol synthase, which generate an array of volatile terpenes. Furthermore, we identified two gene clusters, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, which encode for the production of mycotoxins. Linking the production of mycotoxins with in vitro bioassays, we found high virulence of F. culmorum PV on maize, barley and wheat. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, we confirmed several compounds important for the behaviour and lifestyle of F. culmorum. This research sets the basis for future studies in microbe–plant interactions.