Derivation of snake venom gland organoids for in vitro venom production

Jens Puschhof, Yorick Post, Joep Beumer, Harald M Kerkkamp, Matyas Bittenbinder, Freek J Vonk, Nicholas R Casewell, Michael K Richardson, Hans Clevers

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


More than 400,000 people each year suffer adverse effects following bites from venomous snakes. However, snake venom is also a rich source of bioactive molecules with known or potential therapeutic applications. Manually 'milking' snakes is the most common method to obtain venom. Safer alternative methods to produce venom would facilitate the production of both antivenom and novel therapeutics. This protocol describes the generation, maintenance and selected applications of snake venom gland organoids. Snake venom gland organoids are 3D culture models that can be derived within days from embryonic or adult venom gland tissues from several snake species and can be maintained long-term (we have cultured some organoids for more than 2 years). We have successfully used the protocol with glands from late-stage embryos and recently deceased adult snakes. The cellular heterogeneity of the venom gland is maintained in the organoids, and cell type composition can be controlled through changes in media composition. We describe in detail how to derive and grow the organoids, how to dissociate them into single cells, and how to cryopreserve and differentiate them into toxin-producing organoids. We also provide guidance on useful downstream assays, specifically quantitative real-time PCR, bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and genetic engineering. This stepwise protocol can be performed in any laboratory with tissue culture equipment and enables studies of venom production, differentiation and cellular heterogeneity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1494-1510
Number of pages17
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Animals
  • Antivenins/genetics
  • Cell Culture Techniques/methods
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods
  • Organoids/growth & development
  • Snake Venoms/biosynthesis
  • Snakes/genetics


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