Exhaled air temperature as a function of ambient temperature in flying and resting ducks

S. Engel, R.H.G. Klaassen, M.R.J. Klaassen, H. Biebach

    Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


    The metabolic costs of flight at a natural range of speeds were investigated in Rose Coloured Starlings (Sturnus roseus, Linnaeus) using doubly labelled water. Eight birds flew repeatedly and unrestrained for bouts of 6 h at speeds from 9 to 14 m s-1 in a low-turbulence wind tunnel, corresponding to travel distances between 200 and 300 km, respectively. This represents the widest speed range where we could obtain voluntarily sustained flights. From a subset of these flights, data on the wing beat frequency (WBF) and intermittent flight behaviour were obtained. Over the range of speeds that were tested, flight costs did not change with velocity and were on an average 8.17±0.64 W or 114 W kg-1. Body mass was the only parameter with a significant (positive) effect on flight costs, which can be described as EEf=0.741 M 0.554. WBF changed slightly with speed, but correlated better with body mass. Birds showed both types of intermittent flight, undulating and bounding, but their frequencies did not systematically change with flight speed. [KEYWORDS: Endurance flight ; Power curve ; DLW ; Energy metabolism ; Wing beat frequency]
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)527-534
    JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 2006


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