Hemodynamic and metabolic changes during hypercapnia with normoxia and hyperoxia using pCASL and TRUST MRI in healthy adults

Pieter T Deckers, Alex A Bhogal, Mathijs Bj Dijsselhof, Carlos C Faraco, Peiying Liu, Hanzhang Lu, Manus J Donahue, Jeroen C W Siero

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Abstract

Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) or arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with hypercapnic stimuli allow for measuring cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Hypercapnic stimuli are also employed in calibrated BOLD functional MRI for quantifying neuronally-evoked changes in cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2). It is often assumed that hypercapnic stimuli (with or without hyperoxia) are iso-metabolic; increasing arterial CO2 or O2 does not affect CMRO2. We evaluated the null hypothesis that two common hypercapnic stimuli, 'CO2 in air' and carbogen, are iso-metabolic. TRUST and ASL MRI were used to measure the cerebral venous oxygenation and cerebral blood flow (CBF), from which the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and CMRO2 were calculated for room-air, 'CO2 in air' and carbogen. As expected, CBF significantly increased (9.9% ± 9.3% and 12.1% ± 8.8% for 'CO2 in air' and carbogen, respectively). CMRO2 decreased for 'CO2 in air' (-13.4% ± 13.0%, p < 0.01) compared to room-air, while the CMRO2 during carbogen did not significantly change. Our findings indicate that 'CO2 in air' is not iso-metabolic, while carbogen appears to elicit a mixed effect; the CMRO2 reduction during hypercapnia is mitigated when including hyperoxia. These findings can be important for interpreting measurements using hypercapnic or hypercapnic-hyperoxic (carbogen) stimuli.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jan 2022

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