The rhizosphere microbiome has a key role in plant growth and health, providing a first line of defense against root infections by soil-borne pathogens. Here, we investigated the composition and metabolic potential of the rhizobacterial community of different common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars with variable levels of resistance to the fungal root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox). For the different bean cultivars grown in two soils with contrasting physicochemical properties and microbial diversity, rhizobacterial abundance was positively correlated with Fox resistance. Pseudomonadaceae, bacillaceae, solibacteraceae and cytophagaceae were more abundant in the rhizosphere of the Fox-resistant cultivar. Network analyses showed a modular topology of the rhizosphere microbiome of the Fox-resistant cultivar, suggesting a more complex and highly connected bacterial community than in the rhizosphere of the Fox-susceptible cultivar. Metagenome analyses further revealed that specific functional traits such as protein secretion systems and biosynthesis genes of antifungal phenazines and rhamnolipids were more abundant in the rhizobacterial community of the Fox-resistant cultivar. Our findings suggest that breeding for Fox resistance in common bean may have co-selected for other unknown plant traits that support a higher abundance of specific beneficial bacterial families in the rhizosphere with functional traits that reinforce the first line of defense.