Notam superponere studui: the use of technical signs in the early Middle Ages

Research output: PhD ThesisPhD thesis


Early medieval Latin manuscripts frequently contain marginal commentaries and annotations that refer to the text in these manuscripts. Such marginalia may have the form of texts or diagrams, but in other cases, they are symbols - crosses, dots, slashes and other more complex graphic signs. While scholars have been aware of the presence of technical signs in manuscript margins, we had until now no coherent understanding of their usage and in many cases we lacked the key to decipher their meaning. My PhD research provides the first detailed examination of technical signs used in the early medieval Latin West and attempts to map their usage in the Carolingian period.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Utrecht University
  • Teeuwen, M.J., Promotor
  • de Jong, M.B., Promotor, External person
Award date18 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • early middle ages
  • medieval manuscripts
  • Medieval Paleography
  • medieval Latin
  • marginal annotations
  • history of science


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