Investigations into the biosynthesis, regulation and self-resistance of toxoflavin in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5.

Benjamin Philmus, Brenda Shaffer, Teresa Kidarsa, Qing Yan, Jos Raaijmakers, Tadhg Begley, Joyce Loper

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Abstract

Pseudomonas spp. are prolific producers of natural products from many structural classes. Here we show that the soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 is capable of producing trace levels of the triazine natural product toxoflavin (1) under microaerobic conditions. We evaluated toxoflavin production by derivatives of Pf-5 having deletions in specific biosynthesis genes, which led us to propose a new biosynthetic pathway for toxoflavin that shares the first two steps with riboflavin biosynthesis. We also report that toxM, which is not present in the well-characterized cluster of Burkholderia glumae, encodes a monooxygenase that degrades toxoflavin. The toxoflavin degradation product of ToxM is identical to that of TflA, the toxoflavin lyase from Paenibacillus polymyxa. Toxoflavin production by P. protegens causes inhibition of several plant-pathogenic bacteria, and introduction of toxM into the toxoflavin-sensitive strain P. syringae DC3000 results in resistance to toxoflavin.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1782-1790
JournalChemBioChem
Volume16
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • triazine
  • secondary metabolism
  • biocontrol
  • international

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