Job strain in working retirees in Europe: a latent class analysis

E. Dingemans, K. Henkens

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


Scientific research has made great progress towards a better understanding of the determinants and consequences of working after retirement. However, working conditions in post-retirement jobs remain largely unexplored. Therefore, using information on working conditions such as job demands, job control and work hours, we investigate whether working retirees can be categorised by the quality of their jobs. Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we perform latent class analysis on a sample of 2,926 working retirees in 11 European countries. The results point to the existence of two sub-groups of working retirees. The first is confronted with high-strain jobs, while the second sub-group participates in low-strain jobs. Subsequent (multi-level) logit analysis undertaken to describe the two classes further suggests that classification in either group is predicted by the socio-economic status of working retirees and by the context of poverty in old age in the countries in question. We conclude that working after retirement in a high-strain job may be conceptually different from working in a low-strain job.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2040-2060
JournalAgeing & Society
Early online date02 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020


  • post-retirement employment
  • working conditions
  • cross-national approach


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