Knowledge Spaces. Visualizing and Interacting with Dimensionality

Charles van den Heuvel, Richard P. Smiraglia

Research output: Chapter in book/volumeChapterScientific


Despite the full potential of visualizing linked data the representation of the semantic web (SW) is still very flat and static. We explore here the potential of visualizations of historical knowledge spaces for the SW beyond mere
representations of organized knowledge as analytical instruments for knowledge interaction. Dimensionality is an aspect of even elementary knowledge structures. Conceptualizations and applications of knowledge spaces are analyzed with the focus on dimension extension in the classification, visualization and retrieval of knowledge from two-dimensional into three-dimensional knowledge spaces. Dahlberg’s 1982 Information Coding Classification (ICC) represents an attempt to create a universal classification using conceptual relationships alongside the
notational expressivity of existing classifications. The ICC is presented in a two-dimensional matrix of nine ontical structures and nine form categories. However, the two-dimensional matrix should be read as multi-dimensional. In 1975 Salton, Wong and Yang introduced the term “document space” as a multi-dimensional vector space model for automatic indexing. A similarly associative knowledge vector space was envisioned and visualized by Meincke and Atherton in 1976 encompassing the use of concept vectors, state vectors and representational vectors. The visualization of classifications in knowledge spaces as objects that organize and integrate knowledge is instrumental to interfaces in knowledge interaction. The history of knowledge organization and representation in combination with the spectacular recent affordances in information visualization should be included as strategies to bring more dimensionality to the SW.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLinking Knowledge. Linked Data for Knowledge Organization and Visualization
EditorsRichard P. Smiraglia, Andrea Scharnhorst
Place of PublicationBaden-Baden
PublisherErgon textendash ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-95650-661-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-95650-660-4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2021


  • Linked Data
  • knowledge organization
  • visualization
  • classification


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