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Plants function in a complex multitrophic environment. Most multitrophic studies, however, have almost exclusively focused on aboveground interactions, generally neglecting the fact that above- and belowground organisms interact. The spatial and temporal dynamics of above- and belowground herbivores, plant pathogens, and their antagonists, can differ in space and time. This affects the temporal interaction strengths and impacts of above- and belowground higher trophic level organisms on plants. Combining both above- and belowground compartments in studies of multitrophic interactions throughout the life cycle of plants will improve our understanding of ecology and evolution in the real world. [KEYWORDS: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; biological-control; natural enemies; populations; resistance; challenges; responses; evolution; patterns; defense]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-554
JournalTrends in Ecology & Evolution
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2001

ID: 169668