Lipids, lipid genes, and incident age-related macular degeneration: the three continent age-related macular degeneration consortium

Ronald Klein, Chelsea E Myers, Gabriëlle H S Buitendijk, Elena Rochtchina, Xiaoyi Gao, Paulus T V M de Jong, Theru A Sivakumaran, George Burlutsky, Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Albert Hofman, Sudha K Iyengar, Kristine E Lee, Bruno H Stricker, Johannes R Vingerling, Paul Mitchell, Barbara E K Klein, Caroline C W Klaver, Jie Jin Wang

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


PURPOSE: To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

DESIGN: Meta-analysis.

METHODS: setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES), and Rotterdam Study (RS). observation procedures: Participants were followed over 20 years and examined at 5-year intervals. Hazard ratios associated with lipid levels per standard deviation above the mean or associated with each additional risk allele for each lipid pathway gene were calculated using random-effects inverse-weighted meta-analysis models, adjusting for known AMD risk factors. main outcome measures: Incidence of AMD.

RESULTS: The average 5-year incidences of early AMD were 8.1%, 15.1%, and 13.0% in the BDES, BMES, and RS, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity in the effect of cholesterol and lipid pathway genes on the incidence and progression of AMD was evident when the data from the 3 studies were combined in meta-analysis. After correction for multiple comparisons, we did not find a statistically significant association between any of the cholesterol measures, statin use, or serum lipid genes and any of the AMD outcomes in the meta-analysis.

CONCLUSION: In a meta-analysis, there were no associations of cholesterol measures, history of statin use, or lipid pathway genes to the incidence and progression of AMD. These findings add to inconsistencies in earlier reports from our studies and others showing weak associations, no associations, or inverse associations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol with AMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)513-24.e3
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014


  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Lipids
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Risk Factors
  • World Health


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