Mix-method toolbox for monitoring greenhouse gas production and microbiome responses to soil amendments

Késia Silva Lourenço, Afnan Khalil Ahmad Suleiman, Agata Pijl, Mauricio R. Dimitrov, Heitor Cantarella, Eiko Eurya Kuramae*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


In this study, we adopt an interdisciplinary approach, integrating agronomic field experiments with soil chemistry, molecular biology techniques, and statistics to investigate the impact of organic residue amendments, such as vinasse (a by-product of sugarcane ethanol production), on soil microbiome and greenhouse gas (GHG) production. The research investigates the effects of distinct disturbances, including organic residue application alone or combined with inorganic N fertilizer on the environment. The methods assess soil microbiome dynamics (composition and function), GHG emissions, and plant productivity. Detailed steps for field experimental setup, soil sampling, soil chemical analyses, determination of bacterial and fungal community diversity, quantification of genes related to nitrification and denitrification pathways, measurement and analysis of gas fluxes (N2O, CH4, and CO2), and determination of plant productivity are provided. The outcomes of the methods are detailed in our publications (Lourenço et al., 2018a; Lourenço et al., 2018b; Lourenço et al., 2019; Lourenço et al., 2020). Additionally, the statistical methods and scripts used for analyzing large datasets are outlined. The aim is to assist researchers by addressing common challenges in large-scale field experiments, offering practical recommendations to avoid common pitfalls, and proposing potential analyses, thereby encouraging collaboration among diverse research groups. • Interdisciplinary methods and scientific questions allow for exploring broader interconnected environmental problems. • The proposed method can serve as a model and protocol for evaluating the impact of soil amendments on soil microbiome, GHG emissions, and plant productivity, promoting more sustainable management practices. • Time-series data can offer detailed insights into specific ecosystems, particularly concerning soil microbiota (taxonomy and functions).

Original languageEnglish
Article number102699
Early online date16 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Bacterial community
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Climate change
  • Co-occurrence of fungal and bacteria
  • Dynamics of soil microbiome
  • Fungal community
  • Gas measurement
  • Global warming
  • Methane
  • Next generation sequencing (NGS)
  • Nitrous oxide
  • Organic residues
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR)
  • Resistance and resilience
  • Soil disturbances
  • Sustainability
  • Time-series analyses
  • Vinasse


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