The present generic concept of Phoma is broadly defined, with nine sections being recognised based on morphological characters. Teleomorph states of Phoma have been described in the genera Didymella, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Mycosphaerella, indicating that Phoma anamorphs represent a polyphyletic group. In an attempt to delineate generic boundaries, representative strains of the various Phoma sections and allied coelomycetous genera were included for study. Sequence data of the 18S nrDNA (SSU) and the 28S nrDNA (LSU) regions of 18 Phoma strains included were compared with those of representative strains of 39 allied anamorph genera, including Ascochyta, Coniothyrium, Deuterophoma, Microsphaeropsis, Pleurophoma, Pyrenochaeta, and 11 teleomorph genera. The type species of the Phoma sections Phoma, Phyllostictoides, Sclerophomella, Macrospora and Peyronellaea grouped in a subclade in the Pleosporales with the type species of Ascochyta and Microsphaeropsis. The new family Didymellaceae is proposed to accommodate these Phoma sections and related anamorph genera. The present study demonstrated that Phoma radicina, the type species of Phoma sect. Paraphoma and Phoma heteromorphospora, the type species of Phoma sect. Heterospora can be assigned to the Phaeosphaeriaceae and Leptosphaeriaceae respectively.