Phylogenetic analysis of dermatophyte species using DNA sequence polymorphism in calmodulin gene

Bahram Ahmadi, Hossein Mirhendi, Koichi Makimura, G Sybren de Hoog, Mohammad Reza Shidfar, Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht, Niloofar Jalalizand

    Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

    40 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Use of phylogenetic species concepts based on rDNA internal transcribe spacer (ITS) regions have improved the taxonomy of dermatophyte species; however, confirmation and refinement using other genes are needed. Since the calmodulin gene has not been systematically used in dermatophyte taxonomy, we evaluated its intra- and interspecies sequence variation as well as its application in identification, phylogenetic analysis, and taxonomy of 202 strains of 29 dermatophyte species. A set of primers was designed and optimized to amplify the target followed by bilateral sequencing. Using pairwise nucleotide comparisons, a mean similarity of 81% was observed among 29 dermatophyte species, with inter-species diversity ranging from 0 to 200 nucleotides (nt). Intraspecies nt differences were found within strains of Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma simii, T. rubrum and A. vanbreuseghemii, while T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. cookei, M. racemosum, M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, T schoenleinii, and A. benhamiae were conserved. Strains of E. floccosum/M. racemosum/M. cookei, A. obtosum/A. gertleri, T. tonsurans/T. equinum and a genotype of T. interdigitale had identical calmodulin sequences. For the majority of the species, tree topology obtained for calmodulin gene showed a congruence with coding and non-coding regions including ITS, BT2, and Tef-1α. Compared with the phylogenetic tree derived from ITS, BT2, and Tef-1α genes, some species such as E. floccosum and A. gertleri took relatively remote positions. Here, characterization and obtained dendrogram of calmodulin gene on a broad range of dermatophyte species provide a basis for further discovery of relationships between species. Studies of other loci are necessary to confirm the results.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)500-514
    JournalMedical Mycology
    Volume54
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2016

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