During 2015, a new basal rot disease was observed on potted plants of Strelitzia reginae in an ornamental nursery located in eastern Sicily. Isolations from symptomatic parts of these diseased plants consistently yielded cylindrocarpon-like isolates. Multigene analyses of the partial gene regions of 28S large subunit nrDNA, -tubulin, histone H3, translation elongation factor 1-alpha, internal transcribed spacer region and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene, and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit genes, supported by morphological characters supported the recognition of a new genus, Pleiocarpon based on P. strelitziae sp. nov., and a new Ilyonectria species, described here as I. strelitziae sp. nov. The pathogenicity of both I. strelitziae and P. strelitziae were confirmed on young plants cultivated under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. Both cylindrocarpon-like fungi were pathogenic to S. reginae and reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the nursery. Of the two species, P. strelitziae was more aggressive than I. strelitziae, resulting in the death of all inoculated plants.
- multigene phylogeny