The incidence of candidemia caused by Candida albicans and Candida glabrata is constantly increasing and is accompanied by the rising use of the few available antifungals. The widespread use of echinocandins and azoles for the treatment of invasive candidemia has enhanced the development of antifungal resistance, resulting in an increasing health care problem. Hence, the rapid detection of resistant strains is required. This study aimed to evaluate the detection of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains resistant to caspofungin by the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT ASTRA). This novel semiquantitative technique facilitates the detection of caspofungin-resistant strains within 6 h. MBT ASTRA results were compared to the data obtained by the use of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Clinical isolates of C. albicans (n = 58) and C. glabrata (n = 57) were analyzed by MBT ASTRA and the CLSI microdilution method. Antifungal susceptibility testing against caspofungin by the CLSI microdilution method classified the C. albicans isolates into 36 susceptible and 22 resistant strains and the C. glabrata isolates into 5 susceptible, 33 resistant, and 19 intermediate strains. For C. albicans, the comparison of MBT ASTRA and the CLSI method revealed an excellent categorical agreement of 100%. A sensitivity and a specificity between MBT ASTRA and the CLSI microdilution method of 94% and 80%, respectively, were detected for C. glabrata strains, based on categorical agreement. In conclusion, the results obtained by MBT ASTRA indicate that this is a very promising approach for the rapid detection of Candida isolates resistant to caspofungin.