B-cells contribute to MS pathogenesis. The association of circulating B-cell phenotypes with combined unique active lesions (CUA) on MRI at 48 weeks follow-up was investigated in 50 interferon beta-treated MS patients. Transitional B-cell proportions were lower in participants with CUA at week 0 and 48 [p = 0.004, p = 0.002]. A decrease in circulating anti-EBNA-1 IgG levels between week 0 and 48 associated with absence of CUA [p = 0.047], but not with B-cell profiles. In a multi-factor model for CUA-risk, transitional B-cell proportions contributed independent from NK/T-cell ratio, change in anti-EBNA-1 IgG, and vitamin D supplementation. Transitional B-cells may predict treatment response in MS.