Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex

Ferry Hagen, Kantarawee Khayhan, Bart Theelen, Anna Kolecka, Itzhack Polacheck, Edward Sionov, Rama Falk, Sittiporn Parnmen, H Thorsten Lumbsch, Teun Boekhout

    Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

    500 Citations (Scopus)


    Phylogenetic analysis of 11 genetic loci and results from many genotyping studies revealed significant genetic diversity with the pathogenic Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. Genealogical concordance, coalescence-based, and species tree approaches supported the presence of distinct and concordant lineages within the complex. Consequently, we propose to recognize the current C. neoformans var. grubii and C. neoformans var. neoformans as separate species, and five species within C. gattii. The type strain of C. neoformans CBS132 represents a serotype AD hybrid and is replaced. The newly delimited species differ in aspects of pathogenicity, prevalence for patient groups, as well as biochemical and physiological aspects, such as susceptibility to antifungals. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry readily distinguishes the newly recognized species.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)16-48
    Number of pages33
    JournalFungal Genetics and Biology
    Publication statusPublished - May 2015


    • Cryptic species
    • Cryptococcus gattii
    • Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Yeast
    • Pathogen
    • Taxonomy


    Dive into the research topics of 'Recognition of seven species in the Cryptococcus gattii/Cryptococcus neoformans species complex'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this