Plant genotype selects the rhizosphere microbiome. The success of plant–microbe interactions is dependent on factors that directly or indirectly influence the plant rhizosphere microbial composition. We investigated the rhizosphere bacterial community composition of seven different sorghum cultivars in two different soil types (abandoned (CF) and agricultural (VD)). The rhizosphere bacterial community was evaluated at four different plant growth stages: emergence of the second (day 10) and third leaves (day 20), the transition between the vegetative and reproductive stages (day 35), and the emergence of the last visible leaf (day 50). At early stages (days 10 and 20), the sorghum rhizosphere bacterial community composition was mainly driven by soil type, whereas at late stages (days 35 and 50), the bacterial community composition was also affected by the sorghum genotype. Although this effect of sorghum genotype was small, different sorghum cultivars assembled significantly different bacterial community compositions. In CF soil, the striga-resistant cultivar had significantly higher relative abundances of Acidobacteria GP1, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus (Burkholderiaceae), Acidovorax and Albidiferax (Comamonadaceae) than the other six cultivars. This study is the first to simultaneously investigate the contributions of plant genotype, plant growth stage and soil type in shaping sorghum rhizosphere bacterial community composition.