There is increasing evidence that parasitoid responses to semiochemicals, important stimuli in the host location process, are influenced by experience. This paper focuses on the role of learning, in particular associative learning, in responses to odors. Emphasis is placed on associative learning during the adult stage, the influence of preadult experience is discussed briefly. New data on learning in the speciesLeptopilina heterotoma are given. It is demonstrated that females can learn to respond to a novel odor, which they subsequently use in microhabitat selection. Learning was shown to be associative whereby host products (contact kairomone) or an oviposition experience could function as the reinforcers (reward). The effect of learning seemed stronger when parasitoids were rewarded with an oviposition experience. The paper concludes with a discussion on the application of parasitoid learning in pest management.
|Journal||Journal of Chemical Ecology|
|Publication status||Published - 1990|