The maintenance of pancreatic islet architecture is crucial for proper β-cell function. We previously reported that disruption of human islet integrity could result in altered β-cell identity. Here we combine β-cell lineage tracing and single-cell transcriptomics to investigate the mechanisms underlying this process in primary human islet cells. Using drug-induced ER stress and cytoskeleton modification models, we demonstrate that altering the islet structure triggers an unfolding protein response that causes the downregulation of β-cell maturity genes. Collectively, our findings illustrate the close relationship between endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and β-cell phenotype, and strengthen the concept of altered β-cell identity as a mechanism underlying the loss of functional β-cell mass.