Species of Calonectria and their Cylindrociadium anamorphs are important plant pathogens worldwide. At present 52 Cylindrocladium spp. and 37 Calonectria spp. are recognised based on sexual compatibility, morphology and phylogenetic inference. The polyphasic approach of integrating Biological, Morphological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts has revolutionised the taxonomy of fungi. This review aims to present an overview of published research on the genera Calonectria and Cylindrocladium as they pertain to their taxonomic history. The nomenclature as well as future research necessary for this group of fungi are also briefly discussed.