Taxonomy, phylogeny and identification of Chaetomiaceae with emphasis on thermophilic species

X W Wang, P J Han, F Y Bai, A Luo, K Bensch, M Meijer, Bart Kraak, D Y Han, B D Sun, P W Crous, J Houbraken

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review


Chaetomiaceae comprises phenotypically diverse species, which impact biotechnology, the indoor environment and human health. Recent studies showed that most of the traditionally defined genera in Chaetomiaceae are highly polyphyletic. Many of these morphology-based genera, such as Chaetomium, Thielavia and Humicola, have been redefined using multigene phylogenetic analysis combined with morphology; however, a comprehensive taxonomic overview of the family is lacking. In addition, the phylogenetic relationship of thermophilic Chaetomiaceae species with non-thermophilic taxa in the family is largely unclear due to limited taxon sampling in previous studies. In this study, we provide an up-to-date overview on the taxonomy and phylogeny of genera and species belonging to Chaetomiaceae, including an extensive taxon sampling of thermophiles. A multigene phylogenetic analysis based on the ITS (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 including the 5.8S nrDNA), LSU (D1/D2 domains of the 28S nrDNA), rpb2 (partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit gene) and tub2 (β-tubulin gene) sequences was performed on 345 strains representing Chaetomiaceae and 58 strains of other families in Sordariales. Divergence times based on the multi-gene phylogeny were estimated as aid to determine the genera in the family. Genera were delimited following the criteria that a genus must be a statistically well-supported monophyletic clade in both the multigene phylogeny and molecular dating analysis, fall within a divergence time of over 27 million years ago, and be supported by ecological preference or phenotypic traits. Based on the results of the phylogeny and molecular dating analyses, combined with morphological characters and temperature-growth characteristics, 50 genera and 275 species are accepted in Chaetomiaceae. Among them, six new genera, six new species, 45 new combinations and three new names are proposed. The results demonstrate that the thermophilic species fall into seven genera (Melanocarpus, Mycothermus, Remersonia, Thermocarpiscus gen. nov., Thermochaetoides gen. nov., Thermothelomyces and Thermothielavioides). These genera cluster in six separate lineages, suggesting that thermophiles independently evolved at least six times within the family. A list of accepted genera and species in Chaetomiaceae, together with information on their MycoBank numbers, living ex-type strains and GenBank accession numbers to ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2 sequences is provided. Furthermore, we provide suggestions how to describe and identify Chaetomiaceae species. Taxonomic novelties: new genera: Parvomelanocarpus X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Pseudohumicola X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han, F.Y. Bai & Houbraken, Tengochaeta X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermocarpiscus X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermochaetoides X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Xanthiomyces X.Wei Wang & Houbraken; New species: Botryotrichum geniculatum X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han & F.Y. Bai, Chaetomium subaffine Sergejeva ex X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Humicola hirsuta X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han & F.Y. Bai, Subramaniula latifusispora X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han & F.Y. Bai, Tengochaeta nigropilosa X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Trichocladium tomentosum X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han & F.Y. Bai; New combinations: Achaetomiella gracilis (Udagawa) Houbraken, X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han & F.Y. Bai, Allocanariomyces americanus (Cañete-Gibas et al.) Cañete-Gibas, Wiederhold, X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Amesia dreyfussii (Arx) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Amesia raii (G. Malhotra & Mukerji) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arcopilus macrostiolatus (Stchigel et al.) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arcopilus megasporus (Sörgel ex Seth) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arcopilus purpurascens (Udagawa & Y. Sugiy.) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum deceptivum (Malloch & Benny) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum gangligerum (L.M. Ames) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum officinarum (M. Raza & L. Cai) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum piluliferoides (Udagawa & Y. Horie) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum repens (Guarro & Figueras) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Arxotrichum sinense (K.T. Chen) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Botryotrichum inquinatum (Udagawa & S. Ueda) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Botryotrichum retardatum (A. Carter & R.S. Khan) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Botryotrichum trichorobustum (Seth) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Botryotrichum vitellinum (A. Carter) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Collariella anguipilia (L.M. Ames) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Collariella hexagonospora (A. Carter & Malloch) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Collariella pachypodioides (L.M. Ames) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Ovatospora amygdalispora (Udagawa & T. Muroi) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Ovatospora angularis (Yu Zhang & L. Cai) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium biporatum (Cano & Guarro) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium hispanicum (Guarro & Arx) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium inaequale (Pidopl. et al.) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium longiciliatum (Yu Zhang & L. Cai) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium mareoticum (Besada & Yusef) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium muelleri (Arx) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium multispirale (A. Carter et al.) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium perlucidum (Sergejeva) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parachaetomium subspirilliferum (Sergejeva) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parathielavia coactilis (Nicot) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parvomelanocarpus tardus (X.Wei Wang & Samson) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Parvomelanocarpus thermophilus (Abdullah & Al-Bader) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Pseudohumicola atrobrunnea (X.Wei Wang et al.) X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han, F.Y. Bai & Houbraken, Pseudohumicola pulvericola (X.Wei Wang et al.) X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han, F.Y. Bai & Houbraken, Pseudohumicola semispiralis (Udagawa & Cain) X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han, F.Y. Bai & Houbraken, Pseudohumicola subspiralis (Chivers) X.Wei Wang, P.J. Han, F.Y. Bai & Houbraken, Staphylotrichum koreanum (Hyang B. Lee & T.T.T. Nguyen) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Staphylotrichum limonisporum (Z.F. Zhang & L. Cai) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Subramaniula lateralis (Yu Zhang & L. Cai) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermocarpiscus australiensis (Tansey & M.A. Jack) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermochaetoides dissita (Cooney & R. Emers.) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermochaetoides thermophila (La Touche) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Xanthiomyces spinosus (Chivers) X.Wei Wang & Houbraken; New names: Chaetomium neoglobosporum X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermothelomyces fergusii X.Wei Wang & Houbraken, Thermothelomyces myriococcoides X.Wei Wang & Houbraken; Lecto- and / or epi-typifications (basionyms): Botryoderma rostratum Papendorf & H.P. Upadhyay, Botryotrichum piluliferum Sacc. & Marchal, Chaetomium carinthiacum Sörgel, Thielavia heterothallica Klopotek. Citation: Wang XW, Han PJ, Bai FY, Luo A, Bensch K, Meijer M, Kraak B, Han DY, Sun BD, Crous PW, Houbraken J (2022). Taxonomy, phylogeny and identification of Chaetomiaceae with emphasis on thermophilic species. Studies in Mycology 101: 121-243. doi: 10.3114/sim.2022.101.03.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-243
Number of pages123
JournalStudies in Mycology
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


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