Ecological stoichiometry (ES) has become one of the most pervasive theoretical frameworks in environmental sciences and biology in the last two decades. ES allows predicting processes on all organizational levels from subcellular structures to ecosystems by relating the elemental composition and demand of organisms to the relative availability of resources. However, ES has been rarely used to understand and predict the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF), although ES would be ideally suited as it makes predictions on both population processes underlying biodiversity as well as on matter transformations underlying ecosystem processes. Here, we propose to link the two fields of research on ES and BEF relationships and highlight a number of potential avenues for further research. First, we cast a stoichiometric view on drivers of biodiversity change. Second, we address the stoichiometric underpinning of biodiversity-productivity relationships. Third, we discuss potential interactions between stoichiometry and diversity in a food web context.