Trends in Molecular Diagnostics and Genotyping Tools Applied for Emerging Sporothrix Species

Jamile Ambrósio de Carvalho, Ruan Campos Monteiro, Ferry Hagen, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Anderson Messias Rodrigues

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11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sporotrichosis is the most important subcutaneous mycosis that affects humans and animals worldwide. The mycosis is caused after a traumatic inoculation of fungal propagules into the host and may follow an animal or environmental transmission route. The main culprits of sporotrichosis are thermodimorphic Sporothrix species embedded in a clinical clade, including S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa, and S. luriei. Although sporotrichosis occurs worldwide, the etiological agents are not evenly distributed, as exemplified by ongoing outbreaks in Brazil and China, caused by S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, respectively. The gold standard for diagnosing sporotrichosis has been the isolation of the fungus in vitro. However, with the advance in molecular techniques, molecular assays have complemented and gradually replaced the classical mycological tests to quickly and accurately detect and/or differentiate molecular siblings in Sporothrix. Nearly all techniques available for molecular diagnosis of sporotrichosis involve PCR amplification, which is currently moving towards detecting Sporothrix DNA directly from clinical samples in multiplex qPCR assays. From an epidemiological perspective, genotyping is key to tracing back sources of Sporothrix infections, detecting diversity in outbreak areas, and thus uncovering finer-scale epidemiological patterns. Over the past decades, molecular epidemiological studies have provided essential information to policymakers regarding outbreak management. From high-to-low throughput genotyping methods, MLSA, AFLP, SSR, RAPD, PCR-RFLP, and WGS are available to assess the transmission dynamics and sporotrichosis expansion. This review discusses the trends in the molecular diagnosis of sporotrichosis, genotyping techniques applied in molecular epidemiological studies, and perspectives for the near future.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Fungi
Volume8
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2022

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