Uncovering the mode of action of engineered T cells in patient cancer organoids

Johanna F Dekkers, Maria Alieva, Astrid Cleven, Farid Keramati, Amber K L Wezenaar, Esmée J van Vliet, Jens Puschhof, Peter Brazda, Inez Johanna, Angelo D Meringa, Heggert G Rebel, Maj-Britt Buchholz, Mario Barrera Román, Amber L Zeeman, Sam de Blank, Domenico Fasci, Maarten H Geurts, Annelisa M Cornel, Else Driehuis, Rosemary MillenTrudy Straetemans, Mara J T Nicolasen, Tineke Aarts-Riemens, Hendrikus C R Ariese, Hannah R Johnson, Ravian L van Ineveld, Froso Karaiskaki, Oded Kopper, Yotam E Bar-Ephraim, Kai Kretzschmar, Alexander M M Eggermont, Stefan Nierkens, Ellen J Wehrens, Henk G Stunnenberg, Hans Clevers, Jürgen Kuball, Zsolt Sebestyen, Anne C Rios

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Extending the success of cellular immunotherapies against blood cancers to the realm of solid tumors will require improved in vitro models that reveal therapeutic modes of action at the molecular level. Here we describe a system, called BEHAV3D, developed to study the dynamic interactions of immune cells and patient cancer organoids by means of imaging and transcriptomics. We apply BEHAV3D to live-track >150,000 engineered T cells cultured with patient-derived, solid-tumor organoids, identifying a 'super engager' behavioral cluster comprising T cells with potent serial killing capacity. Among other T cell concepts we also study cancer metabolome-sensing engineered T cells (TEGs) and detect behavior-specific gene signatures that include a group of 27 genes with no previously described T cell function that are expressed by super engager killer TEGs. We further show that type I interferon can prime resistant organoids for TEG-mediated killing. BEHAV3D is a promising tool for the characterization of behavioral-phenotypic heterogeneity of cellular immunotherapies and may support the optimization of personalized solid-tumor-targeting cell therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-69
Number of pages10
JournalNature Biotechnology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Humans
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Neoplasms/genetics
  • Immunotherapy/methods
  • Organoids/pathology


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