1.Freshwater fish can affect aquatic vegetation directly by consuming macrophytes or indirectly by changing water quality. However, most fish in the temperate climate zone have an omnivorous diet. The impact of fish as aquatic herbivores in temperate climates therefore remains unclear and depends on their dietary flexibility.
2.We tested the effects of a flexible omnivore and an herbivore on aquatic vegetation by comparing the effects of rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus, the most herbivorous fish in temperate climates) with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in a mesocosm pond study. Exclosures distinguished herbivorous effects of fish on submerged macrophytes from indirect effects through changes in water quality, whereas stable isotope food-web analysis provided information on fish diets.
3.We hypothesised that rudd, with its flexible diet and preference for animal food items, would only indirectly affect macrophytes, whereas grass carp, with its inflexible herbivorous diet, would directly affect macrophyte biomass.
4.Only grass carp significantly reduced macrophyte biomass through consumption. Rudd had no effect. Food-web analysis indicated that rudd predominantly consumed animal prey, whereas grass carp included more plants in their diet, although they also consumed animal prey. Grass carp significantly affected water quality, resulting in lowered pH and increased N-NH4 concentrations, whereas more periphyton growth was observed in the presence of rudd. However, the indirect non-herbivorous effects of both fish species had no effect on macrophyte biomass.
5.Both fish species should be considered as omnivores. Despite the fact that rudd is the most herbivorous fish in the western European climate zone, its effect on submerged macrophyte biomass is not substantial at natural densities and current temperatures.