Sixteen Fusarium species were recovered from 52 asparagus commercial fields, representing all major ecological (edaphic and climatic) area of asparagus production in the province of Québec, eastern Canada. This study extends our understanding of the geographic range of these species. It also provides climatological and edaphic properties linked to community changes and adaptations. Fusarium oxysporum and F. proliferatum were omnipresent and abundant in all five ecological area under study, whereas F. redolens was less frequently found. Species of Fusarium that produce carmine red pigmentation on potato dextrose agar, i.e., F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, etc., were common at the northern limit of asparagus production. Abundance of red Fusarium species corresponded with a low isolation frequency of F. proliferatum. Nevertheless, F. proliferatum had a high recovery rate throughout Québec asparagus growing areas, under climatic conditions as cold as those of northern Europe where this species is uncommon in asparagus fields. In the light of these results, redefinition of the geographical distribution of F. proliferatum in asparagus fields is proposed. Intraspecific molecular differences in F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum were detected in the EF-1 alpha sequences and compared with well-characterized strains of North America.