A soil profile from the Saxnäs Mosse peat bog, Sweden, has been analysed for glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids and 16S rRNA genes in order to constrain the source of the yet ‘orphan,’ but supposedly bacterial, branched GDGTs. Branched GDGT lipids dominate over archaeal membrane lipids. The Acidobacteria comprise the dominant bacterial group, accounting for the majority of total Bacteria, and are generally more abundant than methanogenic archaea. Analysed acidobacterial strains did not contain branched GDGT lipids. Thus, the source organism must likely be searched for in other acidobacterial phyla or in another abundant group within the remaining bacteria.