The genus Quambalaria consists of plant-pathogenic fungi causing disease on leaves and shoots of species of Eucalyptus and its close relative, Corymbia. The phylogenetic relationship of Quambalaria spp., previously classified in genera such as Sporothrix and Ramularia, has never been addressed. It has, however, been suggested that they belong to the basidiomycete orders Exobasidiales or Ustilaginales. The aim of this study was thus to consider the ordinal relationships of Q. eucalypti and Q. pitereka using ribosomal LSU sequences. Sequence data from the ITS nrDNA were used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the two Quambalaria species together with Fugomyces (= Cerinosterus) cyanescens. In addition to sequence data, the ultrastructure of the septal pores of the species in question was compared. From the LSU sequence data it was concluded that Quambalaria spp. and F. cyanescens form a monophyletic clade in the Microstromatales, an order of the Ustilaginomycetes. Sequences from the ITS region confirmed that Q. pitereka and Q. eucalypti are distinct species. The ex-type isolate of F. cyanescens, together with another isolate from Eucalyptus in Australia, constitute a third species of Quambalaria, Q. cyanescens (de Hoog & G.A. de Vries) Z.W. de Beer, Begerow & R. Bauer comb. nov. Transmission electron-microscopic studies of the septal pores confirm that all three Quambalaria spp. have dolipores with swollen lips, which differ from other members of the Microstromatales (i.e. the Microstromataceae and Volvocisporiaceae) that have simple pores with more or less rounded pore lips. Based on their unique ultrastructural features and the monophyly of the three Quambalaria spp. in the Microstromatales, a new family, Quambalariaceae Z.W. de Beer, Begerow & R. Bauer fam. nov., is described.