BACKGROUND: Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a serious leaf pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp. This review considers the taxonomic history, epidemiology, host associations and molecular biology of T. nubilosa. TAXONOMY: Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Dothideomycetes; Order Capnodiales; Family Teratosphaeriaceae; genus Teratosphaeria; species nubilosa. IDENTIFICATION: Pseudothecia hypophyllous, less so amphigenous, ascomata black, globose becoming erumpent, asci aparaphysate, fasciculate, bitunicate, obovoid to ellipsoid, straight or incurved, eight-spored, ascospores hyaline, non-guttulate, thin walled, straight to slightly curved, obovoid with obtuse ends, medially one-septate, slightly constricted at the median septum, tapering to both ends, ascospore germination type F, germinating from both ends, germ tubes growing parallel to the long axis of the spore with distortion of the primary ascospore cell. HOST RANGE: Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a primary pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp., including E. botryoides, E. bicostata, E. bridgesiana, E. cypellocarpa, E. dunnii, E. globulus ssp. bicostata, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. globulus ssp. pseudoglobulus, E. grandis, E. gunnii, E. nitens, E. pilularis, E. quadrangulata, E. viminalis, E. grandis x E. resinifera and E. urophylla x E. globulus. DISEASE SYMPTOMS: Leaf spots predominantly occur on juvenile Eucalyptus foliage; however, T. nubilosa has also recently been found on mature Eucalyptus foliage. Leaf spots are amphigenous, varying in size from small spots that are round to irregular. Lesions enlarge and coalesce to form larger blotches over the leaf surface. Initial lesions appear as pale-green spots surrounded by purple margins and, once mature, are generally yellow to pale brown with dark-brown raised borders. USEFUL WEBSITES: Mycobank, http://www.mycobank.org; Mycosphaerella identification website, http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/mycosphaerella/BioloMICS.aspx.