The development of the extraradical mycelium and auxiliary cells and spore production of Scutellospora reticulata in association with Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots was followed under root-organ culture conditions. Extraradical mycelium development followed classical lag-exponential-plateau phases, with an additional late decline phase in number of auxiliary cells. Spore production started in parallel with a critical extraradical mycelium biomass produced, continued long after root growth ceased and during the late decline in auxiliary cells number. Isolated auxiliary cells were shown to exhibit hyphal re-growth, but not root colonization, either in situ or in vitro. These results showed that root and extraradical mycelium development were intimately associated in a sequence where both grew together during active root growth, followed during root aging by a period in which only the fungus developed. Spore production appeared dependent on a critical extraradical mycelium biomass and on the re-allocation of resources from both the intraradical mycelium and the auxiliary cells via the hyphal network.