Black foot disease is a serious disease of grapevine crops in most areas where vines are grown. Mainly two species of Cylindrocarpon, C. destructans and C. macrodidymum, are associated with this disease. Recent studies have revealed a tremendous molecular variation within the former but only slight molecular variation within the latter, indicating that C. destructans presents a complex of several species The present study elucidates the taxonomic status of C. destructans-like isolates associated with black foot disease of grapevines. Grapevine isolates were studied morphologically, subjected to DNA analyses of their ITS and partial ß-tubulin genes, and were mated in all combinations in vitro. Cylindrocarpon destructans strains isolated from grapevines in Europe and South Africa appeared morphologically and genetically identical, and had identical ITS and partial ß-tubulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses placed these strains in a clade closely related but clearly distinct from other clades with C. destructans-like anamorphs obtained from various herbaceous or woody hosts. Only the ex-type strain of Cylindrocarpon liriodendri had identical sequences to strains isolated from grapevines, and could also not be distinguished by morphological characters. The grapevine isolates are therefore reidentified here as Cylindrocarpon liriodendri. Cylindrocarpn liriodendri formed perithecia in heterothallic conditions and the holomorph of this species is described as Neonectria liriodendri sp. nov. Neonectria liriodendri is genetically distinct from the ex-type strain of Neonectria radicicola, which originated from Cyclamen in Sweden. Both ex-type strains also differ from at least two other clades comprising additional C. destructans-like strains. Many of these strains originated from Panax sp., which is the host of the type of C. destructans. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that C. destructans is not the anamorph of N. radicicola and that N. liriodendri, N. radicicola and several C. destructans-like taxa may have evolved independently within the same phylogenetic species complex.