White-rot fungi are major degraders of woody materials in terrestrial environments because of their ability to decompose lignin. However, little is known on the possible associations of white-rot fungi with other microorganisms during wood decay. We investigated the numbers, community composition and functional traits of bacteria present in natural wood samples under advanced decay by the white-rot basidiomycete Hypholoma fasciculare. The wood samples contained high numbers of cultivable bacteria (0.2–8 109 colony forming units (CFU) per g of dry wood). Most cultivable bacteria belonged to Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (75% and 23% of sequences, respectively). The same phyla were also found to be dominant (59% and 23%, respectively) using a non-culturable quantification technique, namely, direct cloning and sequencing of 16sRNA genes extracted from wood. Bacteria that could be subcultured consisted of acid-tolerant strains that seemed to rely on substrates released by lignocellulolytic enzyme activities of the fungus. There were no indications for antagonism (antibiosis) of the bacteria against the fungus.